Ecological specific niche habits was produced inside the Maxent by using the 15 away from the 19 practical bioclimatic investigation levels tested on dos

Ecological specific niche habits was produced inside the Maxent by using the 15 away from the 19 practical bioclimatic investigation levels tested on dos

Ecological specific niche acting

To check the possibility that location of the jacana hybrid zone is actually dependent on ecological type for the western Panama, i made environmental niche patterns both for variety for the Maxent v3.step 3 , playing with mathematical methods created in , as the accompanied on ENMTools v1.step 3 computer software . To do so we generated a set of occurrence situations getting per varieties considering our specimen details and you may formulated with installed studies out of one or two personal databases (Avian Education System ( and you may Ornis (art gallery specimen information just: Because thickness analysis both for species is extremely biased toward parts out of higher ecotourism passion, the new facts have been pruned for having a consistent shipments out of sampled thickness factors around the for every single varieties diversity . 5 min solution from the WorldClim database v.14 trimmed to the present continental distribution of brand new World jacanas (five layers was seen to be highly synchronised along with other layers [Spearman’s r >0.90] s and you may was excluded throughout the data, c.f.. We produced varieties specific niche habits for a few datasets: a) the entire selection of J. spinosa (239 situations), b) brand new continental selection of J. jacana (246 issues), and c) the range of the new all black-plumaged J.j. hypomelaena subspecies away from J. jacana to the west of this new Andes (that are a beneficial subset from b), 50 points). For each and every research set, a variety market design are produced given that mediocre away from a hundred works that have twenty-five% of observance products utilized for model studies together with other 75% having model creativity. The fresh resultant yields are a beneficial raster document regarding projected niche viability for each types during the ASCII style.

I counted the amount that the fresh projected market of each and every jacana taxon overlapped playing with around three analytics: Schoener’s D, a standardized measure of Hellinger length I, and relative rating RR, due to the fact used inside ENMTools v1.step three . ENMTools computed the importance of these statistics playing with a low-parametric means by the promoting null-really worth withdrawals regarding D, I, and you may RR, which were computed of one hundred pairs out of pseudoreplicated datasets you to merge density products away from one another taxa not as much as review. Empirically noticed beliefs are after that versus this type of withdrawals to decide value. We used this process into the analysis regarding three pairs off modeled niches: J. spinosa vs. every J. jacana, J. spinosa vs. simply J. j. hypomelaena, and you may J. j. hypomelaena versus. the remainder J. jacana (e.grams. the chestnut and you may black plumaged subspecies eastern and you can southern area of Andes). In the long run to attempt to select and that environmental factors was on the variations in brand new modeled markets off spinosa and you can jacana i opposed the fresh new imply of all of the fifteen Bioclim parameters with the band of for every kinds thickness situations.


As a whole we scored this new phenotypes of 102 adult jacana specimens out of Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia (More file step one: Dining table S1). Phenotypic score one of several perceiver was in fact extremely correlated (Spearman’s r: 0.91 – 0.97), and you can pair specimens had score nearby the diversity limitation of one’s class strategy. Phenotypes score ranged off 0.00 to at least one.00, toward reasonable scores inside Costa Rica and you will adjacent west Panama, and you can large score inside central Panama east to help you Colombia (Desk 1, Even more document step 1: Dining table S1). Clines complement to any or all about three phenotypic characteristics got similar centers (average: 402 kilometer eastern off Bebedero, range: 392 – 408 kilometres). Estimated cline widths into around three phenotypic attributes ranged of 32 to 142 kilometer (average: 75 km; Dining table 2). We utilized the widest worthy of so you’re able to establish the latest jacana crossbreed area since the taking place ranging from 260 and you will 544 kilometres eastern of Bebedero. Contained in this crossbreed region, 16% away from specimens was indeed categorized as phenotypic “hybrids” and you may all in all, 42% showed certain phenotypic signs of introgression prior to parental variations (Dining table 3). Beyond your hybrid zone, all specimens was basically classified since the strictly adult. Those types of specimens classified as the “hybrids”, phenotype ratings were notably biased with the J. spinosa (indicate rating: 0.36 +/? 0.09, one-decide to try t-shot, t =4.7, P =0.002). East of your own crossbreed area center exponential rust tails of our own suitable clines quickly reached an asymptote of just one.0. However to the west of the newest crossbreed heart, two of the three fitted clines had shallower rapid rust tails one did not arrive at 0.0 in the Bebedero, indicating bigger, asymmetrical introgression out-of jacana phenotypic traits throughout the range of spinosa (Shape 3).

اترك تعليقاً

لن يتم نشر عنوان بريدك الإلكتروني. الحقول الإلزامية مشار إليها بـ *